How to make the bibliography

How to make the bibliography

The list of references is necessary in any written work, whether it be the school paper or the scientific monograph. Usually it is in the end, after the conclusion. The bibliographic index according to state standard is made out. It is possible to make it in several ways.

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Divide the draft list into groups. Define, what works form methodology of your research. Enter them in the separate list. The second group is made by official documents. It can be acts, resolutions of meetings and congresses, documents of political parties and movements.


Make the list of sources. It can be materials on which your research is based. Here historical sources, data of sociological polls, statistical data on the different directions, the results of experiments presented by your predecessors enter.


Make the list of books and articles on a subject which you used in the course of work. Here all those works which were not included into the first three lists enter. It is necessary to include works of domestic and foreign authors in that language in which you read or quoted the book.


Choose an order of drawing up the bibliographic index. It can be alphabetic, chronological, systematic or executed as the first mention. If work small, is most convenient the alphabetic list. Wishing to show development in time of this or that process, choose a chronological order. In a case when it is necessary to show communication of the studied problem with various branches of knowledge, the systematic list is more preferable. The list as the first mention can be used only in very small works, in all other cases inconveniently to use it.


If you chose an alphabetic order, first of all arrange authors alphabetically of a surname of authors or the name of collective publications or where the surname of the author is not specified. If you have some authors namesakes, look at initials and also distribute them alphabetically. If in the list there were some works of one author, arrange in alphabetical order names of works.


At a chronological order at first distribute literature by years of the publication. In certain cases perhaps and smaller division on months, generally such way is used in biographic literature. In all other cases of work, published in one year, settle down alphabetically authors or names.


For drawing up the systematic list make the list of branches of knowledge to which the matter is related. It is very possible that in each section it will be necessary to make the list of subjects. At the beginning of such list make the separate list of publications which are related to all sections. In each section the alphabetic list too is applied.


Put down serial numbers. In all types of bibliographic indexes through numbering is applied. Besides a surname of the author and the name of work, specify the city in which the book, publishing house and year is published. If you quote the materials published in collections or magazines specify the name of the edition, number, year of the edition. Quite often happens it is necessary to specify and pages.