Anthropogenous environmental pollution accompanies any illiterately organized production. Even the small enterprise which is not equipped with filters and exceeding maximum permissible concentration of emissions has negative impact on health of the person and animals. Therefore it is necessary to perfrom ecological calculations and to control the level of the pollution created by the enterprise.
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The ecological situation in Russia becomes worse and worse every year. Continuous pollution of the soil synthetic materials, the atmospheres - acid couples, and waters - various fenolosoderzhashchy emissions put considerable shcherb to the nature. And, the last link of the biosphere - water - is peculiar "collector" of the polluting substances. Through rainfall and the soil various toxic agents get to the rivers and lakes. On the other hand, water is the natural filter, and therefore it is capable to sustain more considerable loading in the form of the polluting substances, than other parts of the biosphere. However, and in water, as well as in the atmosphere, it is impossible to exceed so-called maximum concentration limit - maximum permissible concentration of the polluting substances. To understand, what impact is made on the biosphere by this or that enterprise, and to prevent further pollution of environment by it, it is necessary not only to perfrom calculations, but also to hold complex event - so-called environmental assessment.
The assessment of level of impact of economic or other activity (including, yet not begun) on environment and natural resources is called as environmental assessment. At design of any objects or construction it is important to consider in advance all negative factors which can negatively be reflected further in human health. If there is a lot of these factors, the decision on the termination of existence of object in this district is quite often made. Especially dangerous, including, and petrochemical, the enterprises build on the maximum removal from settlements and housing estates. At a place choice for them consider even the direction of a wind. As it in Moscow northern, all enterprises of this profile in it are located in the south.
In the course of implementation of these or those calculations or measurements each ecologist is guided by specially developed documentation and rules. In the beginning impacts on environment (EIA) on the basis of which it is possible to judge a state of environment in this district in general carry out an assessment, and also osushchetsvlyat environmental control and ecological audit. The last two processes allow to receive an assessment of activity of the enterprises and objects generally. Then consider each of parts of the biosphere.
To define, how many the polluting substances get to the atmosphere in a year, it is possible to use the formula given below. It is suitable even for those cases when the object is not equipped with a clearing construction:
Mотх=10^-6*Cmax*y*t, where With max - the maximum concentration of substance before cleaning, г/м^3, y - a volume consumption of air-gas mix in unit of time, m ^3/c, t - equipment operating time in a year, with.
In case the source of pollution is equipped with the filter or a cyclone, efficiency of cleaning pays off in the beginning:
K = M fakt./Mvsv. (Mpdk), where M fact. - number of emissions for last year, Mvsv - number of temporarily coordinated emissions, maximum concentration limit M. - number of maximum-permissible emissions.
Serious value has calculation of ground concentration of substances. Often it depends on a land relief which influences dispersion of harmful substances. More hilly areas have high concentration of harmful substances on a surface, especially from zavetrenny side of the hill that vyzvao the lowered pressure from this party. On the formula given below find the maximum value of ground concentration:
Cm=a*m*f*m*n *?/H^2*V? T^1/3, where A - the coefficient depending on temperature stratification, M - the mass of the harmful substance which is thrown out for a unit of time, / with, F - the coefficient considering the speed of subsidence of harmful substances in air, V - the volume of the thrown-out gases, m ^3/c? - the coefficient considering influence of a land relief.
On the basis of ground concentration PDV can calculate - maximum-permissible emission. It is measured in grams a second and is on a formula:
PDV = (Maximum concentration limit-Council of Federation) *H^2*V? T^1/3/AF*m*n *?, Council of Federation - background concentration which includes pollution by other sources, besides specified in a statement of the problem.
Thus the condition which is the main aspect of environmental assessment has to be met:
Sf+sm? Maximum concentration limit