On the physical properties all simple substances can be shared into metals and nonmetals. The part from these substances can be defined visually: iron – metal, and hydrogen – no. However for the majority of elements it is better to know accurate signs not to be mistaken in classification.
It is required to you
- Mendeleyev's table.
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As it was already told, substances differ on the physical properties. All metals, except for mercury, at the room temperature are strong substances. They possess characteristic "metal" gloss, carry well out heat and electric current. The majority of metals are plastic, that is, can easily change the form at physical impact on them.
On the physical properties nonmetals have much more distinctions, than metals. They can be in liquid (bromine), firm (is gray) also a gaseous (hydrogen) state. Possess low heat conductivity, carry badly out also electric current.
It is possible to distinguish metals from nonmetals and on their structure. At nonmetals the number of free atoms at the external level are more, than at metals. Metals have not molecular structure – they consist of a crystal lattice. Nonmetals, on the contrary, possess molecular or ionic structure.
In comparison with metals, at nonmetals the bigger oxidation-reduction potential and electronegativity.
To distinguish metal from nonmetal, it is not obligatory to study their physical and chemical properties, will be to look at Mendeleyev's table enough. Mentally carry out a short flight of stairs from pine forest to astatine. Metals settle down in the left lower part of the table, and also in secondary subgroups above from a short flight of stairs. Nonmetals – in the rest in the main subgroups.
In addition, in many tables nonmetals are designated in the red color, and metals – black and green.
There are also amphoteric elements. These substances are capable to show in various chemical reactions properties as metals, and nonmetals. Zinc, aluminum, tin, antimony belong to such elements. In the highest oxidation level they are capable to show properties, characteristic for nonmetals.