In works of art for strengthening of impact on the reader authors use so-called stylistic figures. They represent special expressions and combinations of words which practically do not meet in informal conversation. Creation of such combinations is distinctive feature of author's style. Among figures of speech there is a gradation (in the lane from armor. – gradual increase).The sponsor of placement P&G Articles on the subject "What Is the Gradation" That such a litote That such an antithesis That such epithets Reception of gradation consists in a consecutive arrangement of words, expressions, artistic images, means of expressiveness in ascending order or decrease of a sign. Each subsequent part of the statement comprises amplifying (sometimes decreasing) semantic or expressional word meaning or artistic images. For example: "Above something ugly huge, broken from chains, raged, sobbed, roared". (V. M. Shukshin)
Depending on an arrangement of words as strengthening or weakening of a sign allocate the gradation increasing (ascending) and descending.
The increasing gradation is used for gradual strengthening of figurativeness, emotional expressiveness and the influencing text force. A graded row begins with the most "neutral" word on degree of expressiveness of quality. "Shone, burned, huge blue eyes shone". (V.A. Soloukhin)
The descending gradation occurs much less often, usually in the poetic speech, and serves for strengthening of the semantic contents of the text and creation of figurativeness. In a graded row the most expressive artistic image is on the first place. "It brought mortal pitch / Da a branch with faded sheets". (A.S. Pushkin)
A graded row is most expressive in combination with other figures of speech or syntactic designs.
- "The Swede, the Russian – pricks, cuts, cuts, / a drumbeat, cliques, a gnash …" (A.S. Pushkin) the Gradation is combined with the bessoyuziy;
- "That for life at me! Both it is close, and it is dark, / And my room is boring; blows in a window". (Ya.P. Polonsky) Gradation is combined with the mnogosoyuziy;
- "As I protected as I cherished youth / my flowers treasured, expensive; / It seemed to me, in them the pleasure blossomed; / It seemed to me, the love breathed in them". (I.P. Myatlev) Gradation is combined with an anaphor;
The gradation as a figure of speech is used in art, publicistic style and is one of methods of oratory.